This section provides an overview for infrared spectrophotometers as well as their applications and principles. Also, please take a look at the list of 11 infrared spectrophotometer manufacturers and their company rankings. Here are the top-ranked infrared spectrophotometer companies as of March, 2024: 1.International Crystal Laboratories, 2.Teledyne Princeton Instruments, 3.United Photonics Technology Co.,Ltd..
Figure 1. Infrared spectrophotometer and IR spectrum image
An infrared spectrophotometer is an analytical instrument that irradiates a sample with infrared light and detects the transmitted and reflected infrared light.
It is used to obtain information about the molecular structure of a sample. The primary components of the device include a light source, spectrometer, sample, and detector. When a molecule is irradiated with infrared light, absorption occurs due to the vibration and rotation of the molecules in the sample. Since this absorption spectrum differs depending on the molecular structure, it is possible to obtain information about the molecular structure.
It is especially used to identify functional groups in molecular structures and for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. This method is non-destructive and easy to use and can be applied to a variety of materials, including powder samples and thin films.
Infrared spectrophotometers (IR) are used in a wide range of fields, including pharmaceuticals, agriculture, biology, gas analysis, and forensics, where organic compounds are handled. The technique is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances.
One of its main applications is the partial structure determination of compounds. This is based on the fact that each functional group has a unique absorption, and each peak is detected in a nearly constant wave number range (characteristic absorption band).
Since IR spectra are unique to a substance, they can also be used to identify unknown samples by comparing the measured spectrum with that of a standard sample. Infrared spectrophotometers, which can locally irradiate infrared light, can be used to measure minute amounts of samples and identify foreign substances in materials.
Figure 2. Examples of molecular vibrations observed by infrared absorption
The technique used in infrared spectrophotometers is called infrared spectroscopy (IR). When a substance is irradiated with infrared light (2500-25000 nm), absorption occurs based on the vibration and rotation of molecules.
At this time, the bonds connecting atoms in a molecule show different stretching and contraction depending on the type of bond, and as a result, the absorption spectrum also differs depending on the type of bond. This is the reason why IR is suitable for structure determination of functional groups. The type of functional group can be determined by examining the wave number of the absorbed IR radiation.
The detector measures the degree to which the IR radiation is reduced from the irradiated IR radiation by absorption (or reflection) by the sample. The resulting IR spectrum (infrared absorption spectrum) has the wave number of the irradiated infrared light (unit: cm-1, read: Kaiser) on the horizontal axis and the transmittance %T on the vertical axis.
Figure 3. Schematic of dispersive IR (top) and FT-IR (bottom)
There are two types of infrared spectrophotometers: dispersive type and Fourier transform type (Fourier transform Infrared spectrophotometer FT-IR).
In the dispersive type, a diffraction grating is used in the spectrometer to disperse the light after it has passed through the sample, and each wavelength is detected by the detector sequentially.
In the Fourier transform type, an interferometer is used to create interference waves, which are then irradiated onto the sample. After simultaneously detecting all wavelengths in a non-dispersive manner, the Fourier transform is performed on a computer to calculate each wavelength component.
It is possible to measure at all wavelengths at once, making measurements quick and easy. Because of its superior sensitivity and resolution, the Fourier transform type is currently the mainstream infrared spectroscopy method.
The advantages of the Fourier transform type (FT-IR) over the dispersive type include the following four points:
Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Wavelengths
In the Fourier transform type, IR spectra are obtained by moving a moving mirror. It is not necessary to move the diffraction grating to scan multiple wavelengths, as is the case with the dispersive type and thus enables high-speed measurement.
FT-IR is far more time-efficient when there are many objects to be measured or when noise is to be reduced by using a large integration time. In addition, since multiple wavelengths can be measured at the same time, there is an advantage in that there is less temporal variation in each wavelength (reduction of temperature drift of the measurement device).
Improvement of SNR
While dispersive IR uses a slit, FT-IR does not use a slit, and the energy reaching the detector is larger, resulting in improved SNR.
High Wave Number Resolution
Unlike dispersive IR, which requires a narrower slit to measure spectra with high wave number resolution, the wave number resolution of FT-IR can be easily increased by extending the moving mirror travel distance.
Possible to Expand the Measurement Wave Number Range
The wave number range can be extended from far infrared to visible by replacing the light source, beam splitter, detector, and window plate.
Most compound identification using infrared spectrophotometers is done by the transmission method. The transmission method includes the use of powdered samples sandwiched between KBr plates (KBr plate method) or powdered samples mixed with KBr powder and solidified into a tablet form (KBr tablet method).
The sample is irradiated with infrared light, and the transmitted infrared light is analyzed. For samples with hygroscopic properties, powdered samples, and liquid paraffin are kneaded together to form a paste that is applied to a window plate (Nujol method). Samples on thin films, such as polymer compounds, can be directly irradiated with infrared light for measurement because infrared light penetrates the sample.
Note that there are some absorbers that cannot be analyzed depending on the preparation method. For example, in the KBr tablet method, it is difficult to evaluate the absorption band of the OH group due to the effect of moisture absorption of KBr, and in the Nujol method, the corresponding absorbent cannot be measured because of the absorption of liquid paraffin.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, established in 1875 in Japan, is a renowned manufacturer and supplier specializing in analytical instruments and testing equipment. The company offers a wide range of products, including chromatographs, spectrophotometers, and material testing machines. Shimadzu's history reflects a devotion to innovation and precision. Catering to industries such as pharmaceuticals, materials science, and environmental analysis, their products enable accurate research and quality control. Shimadzu's extraordinary products, such as liquid chromatographs used in pharmaceutical analysis and universal testing machines for evaluating material strength, empower scientific exploration and quality assurance across diverse sectors.
PerkinElmer Inc., founded in 1937, is an American manufacturer headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts, specializing in laboratory technology and management. The company's product offerings include analysis and characterization instruments, software, and consumables. Such offerings cover chromatography, mass spectrometry, molecular and atomic spectroscopy. They also provide immunoassay and food quality analyzers, as well as the simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). These products find applications in various industries, such as biopharmaceuticals, food safety, lithium battery, and water resource management. PerkinElmer also offers OneSource Laboratory Services, providing knowledge, application, and service solutions for scientific laboratories. Additionally, their LABStartUp program supports new laboratories with instrumentation, consumables, and funding.
International Crystal Laboratories, ICL, was founded in 1962 and is based in Garfield, New Jersey. ICL serves the spectroscopy, applied spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry industries and end users. ICL’s product categories include transmission windows & optics, FTIR calibration films, sample cards, powders, cuttings, IR, UV, optical spectroscopy sampling, laboratory presses, die sets, laboratory supplies, and spectro-optic lab supplies. Examples of ICL’s products include circular disks, magneto crystals, crystal cuttings for grinding, Gemini FTIR gas analysis cells, liquids, and solids, polishing kits, and laboratory grinding mills.
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., founded in 1956 and headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts, is a manufacturer and supplier of life science solutions, analytical instruments, specialty diagnostics, laboratory products, and biopharma services. Through its brand names, including Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific, Patheon, Applied Biosystems, and Gibco, among others, the company provides a wide range of products, which include chromatography systems, thermal cyclers, automated cell counters, fermenters, and DNA polymerases. The company’s annual revenue is over 40 billion USD, and it serves several fields, including customers working in clinical diagnostic labs, research institutions, hospitals, government agencies, and pharmaceutical/biotech companies.
HORIBA RADIO LABORATORY was established in Japan in 1945 and has spent the last three-quarters of a century growing as an R&D company and engaged in international operations. HORIBA Scientific offers 200 years of experience developing high-performance scientific instruments and analytical solutions. The HORIBA Group of worldwide companies provides an extensive array of instruments and systems for applications ranging from automotive R&D, process and environmental monitoring, in-vitro medical diagnostics, semiconductor manufacturing, and metrology to a broad range of scientific R&D and QC measurements. Operating in Asia, Europe, and North and South America, HORIBA scientific develops solutions that go beyond just products.
LightMachinery, Inc., established in 2002 and headquartered in Ottawa, Canada, is a manufacturer specializing in the development of precision laser solutions for a wide range of industries. In 2009, the company made a significant stride by acquiring GSI Lumonics' pulsed gas laser product lines. These lines were renowned for their established capability for fast, on-the-fly marking of pharmaceutical, electronic, and consumer packaging products. The company's portfolio of main products includes advanced laser systems, optical components, and laser micro-machining tools. The laser systems are designed to deliver precision in several applications, such as material processing, engraving, and medical device manufacturing.
Keit Ltd., a company established in 2021 in Oxfordshire, UK, is a manufacturer and designer of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The ISO 9001 company provides a calibration support program and an IRmadillo real-time process analyzer. The armadillo is rugged and robust enough to provide real-time chemical analysis in pharmaceutical, industrial, and chemical manufacturing. The products are used in edible oil processing to minimize scrapes, and knocks and control refining procedures. It also provides maintenance, repair, and diagnostic health check services.
Teledyne Princeton Instruments (TPI), founded in 1981 as Princeton Instruments (PI) and currently a subsidiary of Teledyne Digital Imaging US, Inc., is an American manufacturer based in Trenton, New Jersey, specializing in digital imaging technology. The company’s portfolio includes spectrometers, used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon. It also supplies diverse camera types, such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), electron-multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs), complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOSs), and InGaAs (indium gallium arsenide). Additionally, the company offers accessories for cameras and spectrometers, along with certain interfaces. High-precision mirrors and coatings, from Acton Optics & Coatings, are also available.
JASCO Incorporated, a company established in 1958, based in Easton, Maryland, USA, is a subsidiary of JASCO International Co., Ltd, a manufacturer and distributor of analytical and scientific instruments. The company provides product solutions for various industrial and research applications such as spectroscopy, chromatography, microscopy, and surface science. It has a range of products such as FTIR spectrometers, UV-Vis-NIR spectrometers, fluorescence spectrometers, circular dichroism spectrometers, HPLC systems, polarimeters, microscopes, and ellipsometers. These products are designed to operate with high performance, quality, and reliability.
*Including some distributors, etc.
*Including some distributors, etc.
|Number of Companies
|United States of America
1 product is listed.