Integrated Circuits

Integrated Circuits

Here is a list of 28 Integrated Circuits categories. It encompasses a wide range including ic linear regulators, microwave monolithic integrated circuits (mmic), fpgas, load switch ics, etc. You can search for an overview, principle, and usage of each category, as well as find manufacturers and distributors.

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What are Integrated Circuits?

Integrated Circuits are electronic components that are loaded with a concentration of circuits.

Often abbreviated as IC, it is an electronic circuit in which a number of electronic elements with various functions are assembled on a single semiconductor substrate and connected to each other by internal wiring to perform a specific function.

A circuit consists of multiple circuit elements and the wiring that connects them. These circuit elements are mainly resistors, capacitors, and transistors. By combining all of these elements and wiring into a single substrate (chip), the level of integration is increased.

ICs are used in all kinds of electrical products in the world, and the miniaturization of ICs has enabled us to use compact and convenient products such as smartphones.

Among ICs, large scale ICs with 100,000 to 10 million elements are called LSI (Large Scale Integrated).

Before the development of Integrated Circuits, each electronic element (resistor, diode, capacitor, transistor, etc.) had to be mounted individually on a printed circuit board and connected by external wiring.

In contrast, in popular semiconductor circuits, capacitors and resistors (passive elements) and diodes and transistors (active elements) are placed on a single-crystal silicon semiconductor substrate and connected to each other by internal wiring. Compared to the age of the ore radio, the size has been miniaturized to less than 1/30,000th of its original size and less than 1/1 billionth of its area.

How Integrated Circuits Work

Integrated Circuits are made of semiconductors. A semiconductor is a substance that is between a conductor and an insulator and has the property of conducting a small amount of electricity. There are various types of semiconductors, but in general ICs are made of silicon.

By combining pure silicon crystals with a mixture of impurity atoms, transistors can be made in which the flow of electricity (electrons) can be controlled. Large-scale combinations of these transistors can be used to assemble logic circuits that perform calculations and processing. Resistors, capacitors, and wiring can also be manufactured by processing silicon in the same way.

In the manufacturing process, hundreds to thousands of Integrated Circuits are baked at a time on silicon crystal disks called wafers using optical equipment in a clean facility called a clean room. Then, they are separated into individual pieces, wires are attached to connect them to the outside world, and packaging is completed.

Types of Integrated Circuits

1. Typical IC Types

  • CPU
    The CPU is the brain of a computer and is responsible for control and arithmetic operations. The control section manages the order of processing and the data to be handled, and the arithmetic section processes the data.
  • GPU
    A GPU is a processor used to draw on a display. Integrated Circuits for color display, etc., are often used in AI because these circuits are similar to those used in neural networks.
  • FPGA
    FPGAs are ICs that allow users to freely build their own original circuits through programming. Integrated Circuits include many logic circuits, switches, and memory.
  • SRAM
    SRAM is used as a cache due to its high speed operation. A cache is a memory built into the CPU that stores only frequently accessed data.
  • DRAM
    DRAM is used as main memory. It stores running program code, data being worked on, etc.
  • Flash memory
    Flash memory is used as memory for storage, including USB memory and SSD.

2. Basic Structure Type

  • Semiconductor Integrated Circuits
    A large number of various passive and active elements are incorporated on the same semiconductor substrate and connected by internal wiring.
  • Membrane Integrated Circuits
    Passive elements such as resistors and capacitors in the form of a film are embedded on an insulating substrate and connected by internal wiring. Integrated Circuits are classified into Thin-Film Integrated Circuits and Thick-Film Integrated Circuits based on the thickness of the element film.
  • Mixed Integrated Circuits
    Also called hybrid ICs, these circuits incorporate additional active elements such as diodes and transistors in the film Integrated Circuits and connect them with external wiring. Integrated Circuits can also be divided into Silicon ICs and Compound ICs based on the substrate material.

Types of Roles

  • Memory IC
    A semiconductor that can store a variety of information and retrieve it when needed. (DRAM, SRAM, etc.)
  • Microcomputer IC
    As the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, it controls peripheral devices such as input/output devices.
  • ASIC
    A dedicated IC for a specific application. There are cases in which they are designed from scratch for each individual application or only the wiring circuits are modified, which has the disadvantage of high cost and long delivery time.
  • System LSI
    An IC that contains CPU, memory, logic, peripheral circuits, etc., on a single chip.

The Ranking of Companies in the Integrated Circuits Sector

*This ranking is solely among the companies registered with Metoree, sorted by the number of employees. Please use this as a rough guide to understand their scale.

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