This section provides overview, applications, and principles of microphones. Also, please take a look at the list of 29 microphone manufacturers and their company rankings.
A microphone is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. More precisely, it converts vibrations caused by sound into electrical signals.
It is mainly used for communication, recording, and voice amplification. A microphone is generally called a microphone as an input device for sound, whether digital or analog.
While a microphone is an input device for sound, a device that converts electrical signals into sound and outputs it is called a speaker.
Since microphones are used as audio input devices, they are used in various forms for different purposes, such as broadcasting, music recording, and noise level measurement.
Microphones are built into IC recorders for recording, smartphones for voice input during calls, voice input for voice recognition, and hearing aids for voice input. Microphones are also used in combination with speakers to amplify the voice of a large number of people at karaoke, concerts, athletic events, etc., and are widely used in a variety of familiar places.
Microphones convert acoustic vibrations into electrical signals.
There are various types, including dynamic, capacitor, piezoelectric, electrostrictive, electromagnetic, and carbon types.
The dynamic type has a simple configuration, with a coil attached to a diaphragm that converts sound into an electrical signal. It uses a diaphragm called a diaphragm, a voice coil, and a magnet, and the magnetic flux is changed by the sound vibration and converted into an electrical signal.
In contrast to the dynamic type, the capacitor type has a more complex configuration. The diaphragm serves as the electrode of the capacitor, which converts sound into an electrical signal. The diaphragm, which is charged with electricity, and the back plate, which is called the back plate, are combined to form an electrical capacitor. Changes in the distance between the diaphragm and the back plate due to changes in vibration cause changes in the electric field within the capacitor. This change is used as the electrical input. It is characterized by higher sensitivity than the dynamic type.
Condenser microphones are more complex in construction, require internal electronic circuits, and are more expensive than dynamic microphones.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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