This section provides overview, applications, and principles of analog-to-digital converters. Also, please take a look at the list of 6 analog-to-digital converter manufacturers and their company rankings.
An Analog-to-Digital converter is a device that converts analog data into digital data.
Most information in the real world is continuous analog data, which must be converted into digital data expressed in terms of 0s and 1s in order to be processed by a computer. The opposite is called a Analog-to-Digital converter, which converts digital data to analog data.
Analog-to-Digital converter is available in various architectures (conversion methods) with different sampling rates and resolutions. Therefore, it is necessary to select the appropriate one according to the purpose.
Analog-to-Digital converters are used in numerous applications in our daily lives. Specifically, they are used in digital cameras and audio equipment. They convert analog data such as video and sound into digital data for output.
Various electronic devices need to use analog signals as input information, but the internal processing is done with digital signals. Therefore, Analog-to-Digital converters are required. Analog-to-Digital converters are installed in devices that handle light, temperature, etc.
High-speed Analog-to-Digital converters with high sampling rates are being developed for digital cameras and audio equipment, which require high-speed transmission.
The conversion of analog data into digital data by Analog-to-Digital converters are divided into three major stages.
Sampling rate and resolution are indicators of Analog-to-Digital converters performance. The sampling rate represents the speed of conversion; the higher the value, the faster the conversion.
Resolution is an indicator of how finely the data can be expressed, and is expressed in bits (the number of binary digits in the encoding). The higher the value, the smoother and more accurate the representation.
There is a trade-off between sampling rate and resolution, whereby resolution is sacrificed for high-speed sampling, while a slower sampling rate is required to achieve high resolution.
The resolution of Analog-to-Digital converters are concept of how finely the input analog signal can be quantified. The unit is expressed in bits, where 8-bit data is broken down to the eighth power of 2 and expressed as a number from 0 to 255. In general, the number of bits is often a multiple of 8.
If the analog input is a number from 0 to 2 and the Analog-to-Digital converters has 8-bit resolution, then 2/(2^8-1) = 2/255 = 0.007843. From the above, the minimum resolving power of an 8-bit-Analog-to-Digital converters that can input from 0 to 2 is 0.007843. As high-precision Analog-to-Digital converters, 32-bit and 64-bit products are in practical use.
In Analog-to-Digital converters, sampling rate is an important index as well as resolution; the sampling rate of Analog-to-Digital converters are how often it samples an analog quantity. This is the speed at which the Analog-to-Digital converters operates.
By the Nyquist Theorem, we know that Analog-to-Digital converters requires a frequency that is at least twice the frequency of the input analog signal. Therefore, the sampling rate of the Analog-to-Digital converters are set to 2.2 times or more than the input analog signal frequency.
Analog-to-Digital converters are subject to errors. For example, a 16-bit Analog-to-Digital converters with an analog input of 0 to 2 has an error of 2/(2^16-1)=0.0000030518. The degree of accuracy at which sampling is required is determined by the above calculation.
It is important to note that the performance of the Analog-to-Digital converters does not always directly translate into the performance of the device; input protection circuits, amplifiers, attenuators, etc. are provided before the input terminals of the Analog-to-Digital converters, where minute signals are handled.
If the peripheral circuits of the Analog-to-Digital converters are not carefully selected, the performance of high-precision Analog-to-Digital converters may not be fully demonstrated.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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