Chloride is a generic term for compounds formed by chlorine with a more positive element or atomic group. In nomenclature, when describing compounds with chlorine atoms, "chloride" or "chloro" is prefixed or followed by "chloride".
Chlorine Cl2 reacts with most elements except group 18 elements to form chlorides. If the chlorine bond is ionic, it readily liberates the chloride ion Cl-.
Most inorganic chloride containing chlorine atoms have high ionic bonding properties and dissolve easily in water by separating into chloride ion and cation in water.
Organic chloride containing chlorine atoms will bond to chlorine atoms to sp³ carbons to form a stable covalent compound. Chloro groups substituted on sp³ and sp² carbons are easily desorbed, and such organic chloride is used as a substrate for desorption reactions. as Williamson synthesis, the chloro group on the sp³ carbon is also used as a leaving group.
For example, benzyl chloride is used in organic synthesis to replace the hydrogen of the OH group of alcohols, carboxylic acids, and phenols with a benzyl group. This is one method of protecting the OH group by a benzyl group (benzyl protection).
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