This section provides an overview for dewar bottles as well as their applications and principles. Also, please take a look at the list of 6 dewar bottle manufacturers and their company rankings.
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A Dewar bottle is an insulated container that was commercialized by James Dewar in 1982.
They are the forerunner of the "vacuum bottle" and "Thermos water bottle" that we often hear about, and their structures are similar.
A Dewar bottle has three distinctive structures that enable it to retain cold or heat for as long as one hour.
Dewar bottles are used as containers for liquid nitrogen at temperatures ranging from minus 200°C to an oil bath at nearly 300°C because of their excellent thermal insulation at both low and high temperatures. They are mainly used for chemical experiments, temporary refrigerant storage, and transportation.
Specifically, BAM (German Federal Institute for Materials Testing) thermal storage tests. The heat retention properties are used to measure the hazards of storing substances with self-reactive properties. This test also includes a protocol to use Dewar bottles.
Dewar bottles are often made of stainless steel, but transparent glass Dewar bottles have been developed in recent years to allow observation of the inside of the container. There are a wide variety of types, including those with a wide mouth to facilitate working inside the Dewar bottles and those with a small mouth to prevent evaporation of the contents as much as possible.
Dewar bottles have a vacuum layer that blocks the transfer of heat, thereby demonstrating thermal insulation performance. There are three elements of heat transfer, known as the "three principles of heat transfer."
Molecules are always in motion, and this molecular motion is more intense at higher temperatures. Molecular motion that vibrates violently at high temperatures is transmitted to neighboring molecules, one after another, in an attempt to maintain equilibrium, which is called heat conduction.
When gases and liquids are heated, their molecular motion becomes more intense and their density decreases. Convection is the circulation and movement of gases and liquids in an attempt to maintain density equilibrium.
Thermal radiation is the transfer of heat not through molecular motion but through the transmission of electromagnetic waves.
In a vacuum, there are no molecules (strictly speaking, a small but negligible amount of molecules), so heat conduction and convection are prevented by the vacuum layer between the two walls of the Dewar bottle. However, thermal radiation occurs even in a vacuum.
To prevent thermal radiation from being transmitted outside the container, the inside of the two walls that sandwich the vacuum are mirror-finished, and the mirror surface reflects electromagnetic radiation, thereby maintaining the temperature inside the container.
Since there have been many accidents in the past with Dewar bottles and other containers that keep liquid nitrogen cool, they should be used with great care.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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