This section provides an overview for operating systems software as well as their applications and principles. Also, please take a look at the list of 5 operating systems software manufacturers and their company rankings.
An operating system is the software that is fundamental to the operation of a computer system.
Typical operating systems include Windows and macOS. A typical computer consists of output devices, input devices, storage devices, control devices, and computing devices.
It is inefficient to prepare a program for each application software to access these five devices. Therefore, the operating system provides centralized access to this hardware and acts as an intermediary between the application software and the user.
Operating systems are the basic software used in most electronic devices in which CPUs are used. It is the system software that manages the hardware and software to run the computer and is responsible for the basic operations involved in making the computer accessible to users.
Operating systems are used in electronic devices that run applications. They are used in personal computers used in offices and homes, in factory computers used to control production lines in factories, and in smartphones. They are also often used as the basic software in the servers that support cloud computers.
Operating systems include Windows and macOS used in offices and homes, UNIX and Linux used in servers, iOS and Android used in smartphones, and VxWorks and iTron used in embedded systems.
Operating systems mediate between application software, users, and hardware through abstraction. Abstraction allows users to operate without being aware of the differences among various hardware types.
Also, the application software can be accessed without modification. Hardware providers can also provide device drivers that follow the rules defined by the operating system, allowing many applications to be used without modification.
The operating system abstracts the main resources of the computer as follows:
There are various types of operating systems, each used in different fields.
Windows and macOS are mainly used. Since they are operated by humans, they are developed with an emphasis on ease of use of the user interface.
It can handle numerous threads and processes efficiently.
iOS and Android are the mainstream. They are characterized by user interfaces and communications specialized for mobile use.
It is an operating system developed with the priority of responding within a certain time frame. It is mainly used in industrial computer systems.
I/O control is the connection of a computer to peripheral devices. Various peripheral devices, such as keyboards, mice, printers, displays, and external hard disks, are connected to the computer. Input from the keyboard and mouse and output to the display for viewing or writing to an external hard disk is controlled.
It determines the order in which multiple processes, such as the execution of an application on a computer or input processing from a keyboard or mouse, are performed in parallel, and allocate the memory and CPU necessary for the processes.
It manages data stored in storage devices and provides a means of access for users and applications.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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MathWorks, Inc., founded in 1984, is an American manufacturer headquartered in Natick, Massachusetts, specializing in mathematical computing software for engineers and scientists. The company offers MATLAB, a programming and numeric computing platform, employed for data analysis, algorithm creation, and model development. MATLAB finds applications in various domains, including control systems, signal processing, deep and machine learning, predictive maintenance, and robotics. Simulink is another software developed by the company, encompassing a block diagram environment for model-based design and system engineering, simulation, and agile software development. This software is adopted in artificial intelligence (AI), autonomous systems, advanced driver assistance systems, digital twins, and electrification.
Apple, founded in Cupertino, California, in 1976 is a manufacturer and distributor of Computers and Electronics. The company's product portfolio includes laptops, mobile phones, watches, tablets and headphones and accessories. The company serves markets such as education, offices, households, Electronics and IT and automotive. They also offer digital content services including Apple Books, Apple Fitness+, Apple Music, Apple TV+, and the iTunes Store. The company offers worldwide distribution, global customer and technical services and Product Selection Guidance.
Microsoft Corporation, founded in 1975 and based in Redmond, Washington, is a provider of global computer software. As a multinational technology corporation, Microsoft provides cloud computing services, computer and gaming hardware, video games, search and other web-based services globally. Some examples of Microsoft cloud computing include MS Office 365, Xbox Live service, Bing, Skype and more. Microsoft has offices in more than 100 countries. The company researches and creates advanced technologies for future hardware and software products and services.
KUKA AG was founded in 1898 in Augsburg, Germany. The company is a subsidiary of GD Midea Holding Co., Ltd. and is an automation developer, designing and manufacturing robot-based automation solutions for medical, automotive, warehousing, and distribution industries. The company’s product segments include robot systems, production machines, and systems, mobility as a driver of Industry 4.0, and process technologies that provide special welding processes to factories. The company’s services include repair and servicing for robots and machines and engineering services for designing and programming robotic systems.
Blackberry QNX (based in Ottawa, Canada), is an embedded operating system of choice for vehicles, ventilators, train controls, factory automation systems, medical robots, and others, founded in 1980 and acquired by Blackberry in 2010. The company helps customers streamline for their development processes to launch safe, secure, and dependable solutions for their needs. Over 215 million vehicles worldwide, in various sectors, rely on their technology which is also used in embedded systems.