Diazonium is a general term for nitrogen compounds with an NN triple bond in the molecule. Since this functional group is a monovalent cation, ordinary diazonium compounds exist as diazonium salts, and furthermore, since they contain a triple bond in their molecules, they are highly reactive. The isolate is also known to be explosive. Therefore, it is usually used in solution in a synthesized reaction system without isolation.
It can be stabilized by using an aryl group with an electron-withdrawing group as a substrate and tetrafluoroboron (BF3) as an anion. An example of this is commercially available p-Morpholinobenzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate.
Since diazonium has a highly reactive NN triple bond in its molecule, it is almost never used by itself, but rather as a reaction intermediate.
Many reactions using diazo groups are known, and frequently used examples include aromatic substitution reactions such as the Sandmeyer reaction and diazo coupling.
These reactions are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and functional materials, and one particularly famous example is the synthesis of azo dyes. Azo dyes are a general term for dyes with an azo group in their structure, and are obtained by coupling reactions between diazonium and phenols or aromatic amines.
It is said that more than half of synthetic dyes belong to azo dyes, which are very important compounds industrially.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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